Morphology

Question:
1. Compare English suffixes with suffix in Indonesian.
2. Compare English suffixes with suffix in Balinese.
3. Analyze final consonant sound and polite calling (personal) name in Bimanese.
4. Analyze the following Aztec data. Consider –ita-‘to see’ as verb.
5. Work out on pronominal clitics of your mother- tongue by identifying their function.

Answer:
1. The differences between English suffixes and Indonesian suffixes is in English suffixes has a function as the noun marker and adjective marker. Most of English suffixes function as noun marker and it just a few as the adjective marker. Some English suffixes are: -al, -an, -ant, -ary, -ate, -er, -or, -ess, -eer, -ese, -ee, -cide, -dom. Some examples of English suffixes in some words which is function as the adjective marker: accidental, engineer, etc. English suffixes as the noun marker: actor, cutter, examinee, etc. Thus, an Indonesian suffix has a function as many word categories. Some Indonesia suffixes are: -an, -i, is, -isme, -kan, -wan and -wati. Some examples of Indonesian suffixes in some words: jalanan, individualisme, gunakan, etc.
2. As we know like the discussion above, English suffixes just function as the noun marker and adjective marker. But it is so different with suffixes in Balinese because suffixes in Balinese have function as a comparison. Example of suffixes in Balinese:
Puti’ → Puti’an = more white

3. Kamaludin = Kamaludi
Nasarudin = Nasarudi
Fatimah = Fatima
Rahmah = Rahma
Malik = Mali
Arifudin = Arifudi
If we observe, all of names above have changed by omitting the end of words consonant and it is not just for the name but all of the word which have consonant at the end. According to Mr. Kamal whom we had interviewed, he explained to us that this case related to where the Bimanese language came from. Bimanese language came from Austronesia which is omitting the end of word consonant.
4. In Astec language, the word “ita” has meaning “see” but its meaning will change if we attach the consonant /k/ at the end and will be “itak” which is mean “saw” and if we attach the consonant /s/ it will be “itas” its meaning change to be “will see”. From this data we can conclude that the meaning of word ita will change to be “se in the past (saw)” if “ita+k” and it’s meaning “see in the future (will see)” if “ita+s”.

5. Pronominal and the function of my mother tongue.
– Proclitics is the clitic which is attached in the beginning of host and has function as subject if attached in verbs
Examples:
a) nyampah (verb) → t-nyampah = we take a breakfast (subject)
b) mangan (verb) → bi-mangan = she is eating (subject)
– Postclitics is the clitic which is attached in last of host and has function as subject if attached in verb and as possessive pronoun if attached in noun.
Examples:
a) Singgak (verb) → singgak-a = it is borrowed (subject)
b) Bale (noun) → bale-na = his/hes house (possessive pronoun)

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